Stem cell research report paper

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Stem cell research report paper

Reprogramming A scheme of the generation of induced pluripotent stem IPS cells.

Stem Cell Research

Red cells indicate the cells expressing the exogenous genes. The original set of reprogramming factors also dubbed Yamanaka factors are the transcription factors Oct4 Pou5f1Sox2cMycand Klf4.

While this combination is most conventional in producing iPSCs, each of the factors can be functionally replaced by related transcription factors, miRNAssmall molecules, or even non-related genes such as lineage specifiers.

However, considerable advances have been made in improving the efficiency and the time it takes to obtain iPSCs. Upon introduction of reprogramming factors, cells begin to form colonies that resemble pluripotent stem cells, which can be isolated based on their morphology, conditions that select for their growth, or through expression of surface markers or reporter genes.

First generation mouse [ edit ] Induced pluripotent stem cells were first generated by Shinya Yamanaka 's team at Kyoto UniversityJapan, in They chose twenty-four genes previously identified as important in ESCs and used retroviruses to deliver these genes to Stem cell research report paper fibroblasts.

The fibroblasts were engineered so that any cells reactivating the ESC-specific gene, Fbx15could be isolated using antibiotic selection. Upon delivery of all twenty-four factors, ESC-like colonies emerged that reactivated the Fbx15 reporter and could propagate indefinitely.

To identify the genes necessary for reprogramming, the researchers removed one factor at a time from the pool of twenty-four.

By this process, they identified four factors, Oct4, Sox2, cMyc, and Klf4, which were each necessary and together sufficient to generate ESC-like colonies under selection for reactivation of Fbx Unlike the first generation of iPSCs, these second generation iPSCs produced viable chimeric mice and contributed to the mouse germline, thereby achieving the 'gold standard' for pluripotent stem cells.

Totipotent Stem Cells

These second-generation iPSCs were derived from mouse fibroblasts by retroviral-mediated expression of the same four transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, cMyc, Klf4. However, instead of using Fbx15 to select for pluripotent cells, the researchers used Nanoga gene that is functionally important in ESCs.

With the same principle used in mouse reprogramming, Yamanaka's group successfully transformed human fibroblasts into iPSCs with the same four pivotal genes, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc, using a retroviral system, [15] while Thomson and colleagues used a different set of factors, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and Lin28, using a lentiviral system.

Additional genes, however, including certain members of the Klf family Klf1, Klf2, Klf4, and Klf5the Myc family c-myc, L-myc, and N-mycNanogand LIN28have been identified to increase the induction efficiency. While Sox2 was the initial gene used for induction by Yamanaka et al.

Sox1 yields iPS cells with a similar efficiency as Sox2, and genes Sox3Sox15and Sox18 also generate iPS cells, although with decreased efficiency. Klf4 of the Klf family of transcription factors was initially identified by Yamanaka et al.

Stem cell research report paper

However, Thomson et al. Klf2 and Klf4 were found to be factors capable of generating iPS cells, and related genes Klf1 and Klf5 did as well, although with reduced efficiency.

The Myc family of transcription factors are proto-oncogenes implicated in cancer. N-myc and L-myc have been identified to induce instead of c-myc with similar efficiency. Therefore, it was surprising when Yamanaka et al.

LIN28 is an mRNA binding protein [25] expressed in embryonic stem cells and embryonic carcinoma cells associated with differentiation and proliferation. It poses numerous advantages when used instead of C-myc.

For example, the rate at which somatic cells were reprogrammed into iPS cells in Yamanaka's original mouse study was 0. However, recently a path was found for efficient reprogramming which required downregulation of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation NuRD complex.Induced pluripotent stem cells (also known as iPS cells or iPSCs) are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from adult cells.

The iPSC technology was pioneered by Shinya Yamanaka’s lab in Kyoto, Japan, who showed in that the introduction of four specific genes encoding transcription factors could convert adult cells into pluripotent stem cells.

Stem cell research is the future of medicine. Stem cells hold the cures to many diseases, such as diabetes, paralysis and maybe even cancer. However, stem cells are a major issue in the United States at this current time.5/5(2).

A stem cell research paper can be something that many students are weary of because it is a highly controversial issue with many religious and political connotations. Because of this, the subject matter must be handled in a highly sympathetic manner. Stem Cell Reports publishes high-quality, peer-reviewed research presenting conceptual or practical advances across the breadth of stem cell research.

Stem cell research paper topics A stem cell research paper is somewhat different from other research papers and tend to be more advanced than your standard paper, mostly because it requires scientific knowledge or hard scientific facts.

The Importance of Stem Cell Research - Stem cell research is a topic almost everybody in the world has a viewpoint on. Many view the issue of stem cell research and stem cell therapy as morally wrong and a crime against humanity, others view the study of stem cells as the next step in modern science.

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