Spanish interests in North America during the first half of the sixteenth century centered on La Florida.
The first pueblo to be visited by the Spanish, Hawikuh was once the largest Zuni pueblo — presumably first established in the early s. The site of the pueblo contains centuries worth of archeological evidence likely to illuminate modern understanding of how ancient Mogollon and Anasazi cultures combined to create distinct Zuni practices that still exist today.
With the abandonment of Hawikuh during the pueblo revolts ofboth the Zuni architecture and mission church at Hawikuh fell into ruins.
|spanish-exploration||Heceta then gave Bodega y Quadra command of the Sonora. Francisco Antonio Mourelle served as Bodega y Quadra's pilot and the two forged a strong and enduring friendship.|
|The Western Invasion: Early Spanish Expeditions to North America, 1513–1562||Classroom Activities Introduction From untilthe Chinese imperial eunuch Zheng He led seven ocean expeditions for the Ming emperor that are unmatched in world history.|
The original pueblo of Hawikuh sat atop a long, narrow ridge on the eastern side of the Zuni River Valley. Although the exact date of its founding is not known, archeological evidence places inhabitants in the area as early as the s. Six large, irregular structures are believed to have made Spanish expeditions the original city.
Separated by a system of open passageways and small plazas, sections of each structure ranged from one to three Spanish expeditions in height. Carefully constructed out of local sandstone, the buildings likely had thick adobe mortar or red clay holding the stones together and walls covered in smooth adobe plaster.
A Zuni woman, c. The Zuni have always created beautiful pottery — ancient shards of which remain untouched at Hawikuh Courtesy of the Library of Congress Of the six Zuni cities of Cibola, Hawikuh was by far the largest: Esteban Estevanicoa black Spanish slave originally from Morocco, was the first non-native explorer to discover Hawikuh.
When a shipwreck off the coast of Texas left Esteban as one of few survivors, he began traveling across the Southwest, noting languages, cultural practices, and locations of pueblos.
He eventually reached Spanish territory in Esteban led the way, acting as a scout to his Spanish companions. InEsteban first glimpsed Hawikuh and likely visited. The historic record and oral histories differ on the exact sequence of events that followed. It is agreed, however, that shortly after Esteban made contact with the Zunis in Cibola he was killed by tribesmen — within either the Hawikuh pueblo or a neighboring village.
When news of his death reached his entourage, they feared for their lives and returned to New Spain.
When Coronado and his men reached Hawikuh the following yearthey were disappointed to find the rumored golden city to be nothing more than a dusty, crowded Zuni village.
After a brief skirmish resulting in several Zuni deaths, Coronado and his men took possession of the pueblo. The immediate violent encounter and ill-treatment of the natives by the Coronado expedition would set a pattern for Spanish-Indian conflict in the Southwest.
Records over time repeatedly noted that Hawikuh was the largest, most important pueblo in all of Cibola. Spanish missionary efforts began at Hawikuh in when Fray Estevan de Perea traveled to the major Acoma, Zuni, and Hopi pueblos to begin Catholic teachings.
Religious and cultural tensions grew within the pueblo and came to a head a few years later when the Zuni killed the resident priest, Fray Francisco Letrado.
The Zuni people, fearing retaliation from the Spanish, fled to hide in the mountains, not returning to Hawikuh until three years later. A colorful, modern-day Zuni festival reminds on-lookers of the continual Zuni occupation of northern New Mexico for centuries Courtesy of Synchronizer, Flickr's Creative Commons Reestablished by the late s, the mission at Hawikuh then suffered constant Apache raids from the south.
One, inresulted in the death of another priest and the burning of the mission. The Zuni and the Spanish then abandoned Hawikuh completely, never occupying it again.
The former Zuni community and Spanish stronghold is now in ruins. From toarcheologist Frederick Webb Hodge led an excavation of the site unearthing several sandstone walls and foundations and various rooms and artifacts throughout the ancient city.Spanish Conquistadors The Renaissance & Elizabethan Age of Exploration to the New World was dominated by the Spanish Conquistadors.
The success of the Spanish Conquistadors in acquiring monopolies on much of the Eastern spice trade and their expeditions to the New World brought great wealth and power to Spain.
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Spanish Expeditions to the Philippines. The Magellan Expedition 1.)Ferdinand Magellan,a Portuguese in the service of the Spanish crown, was looking for a westward route to . News. You will find information in these articles regarding recent discoveries, expeditions, projects, court rulings, events, meetings, treasure hunting, private sector archaeology and shipwreck recoveries, etc.
The funding came from the queen of Castile, so the profits from Spanish expedition flowed to Castile. In the extension of Spanish sovereignty to its overseas territories, authority for expeditions of discovery, conquest, and settlement resided in the monarchy.
Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources. Exploration occurs in all non-sessile animal species, including humans. In human history, its most dramatic rise was during the Age of Discovery when European explorers sailed and charted much of the rest of the world for a variety of reasons. . The Spanish expeditions into Texas covered by this study were initiated during the later stages of the Indian depopulation in North America. The health of the native population and the impact of European diseases and epidemics on the Indians, as well as on the French and Spaniards, were noted by the expedition diarists. Spanish Expeditions to the Philippines. The Magellan Expedition. Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese in the service of the Spanish crown, was looking for a westward route to the to the Spice Islands of Indonesia. On March 16, , Magellan's expedition landed on Homonhon island in the Philippines. He was the first European to reach the islands.
Spanish Expeditions to the Philippines. The Magellan Expedition. Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese in the service of the Spanish crown, was looking for a westward route to the to the Spice Islands of timberdesignmag.com March 16, , Magellan's expedition landed on Homonhon island in the timberdesignmag.com was the first European to reach the islands.