Summing up his short but detailed report, he includes the following as propaganda strategies: Incompleteness Inaccuracy Driving the agenda Milking the story maximizing media coverage of a particular issue by the careful use of briefings, leaking pieces of a jigsaw to different outlets, allowing journalists to piece the story together and drive the story up the news agenda, etc. Exploiting that we want to believe the best of ourselves Perception Management in particular by using PR firms Reinforcing existing attitudes Simple, repetitious and emotional phrases e.
Posted on March 16, by Scott Alexander [Epistemic status: Heritable mostly means genes. Shared environmental means anything that two twins have in common — usually parents, siblings, household, and neighborhood. Non-shared environmental is everything else.
That summary is wrong. The underwhelming performance of shared environment in twin studies torpedoed that whole area of study. But at least these scholars of social behavior could tell themselves it provided a consolation prize.
That means things like your friends, your schoolteachers, and even that time you and your twin got sent away to separate camps must be really important. More than enough there to continue worrying about how society is Ruining The Children, right?
Measurement error is neither genetics nor family, so it ends up in the non-shared environmental term. IQ tests measure intelligence, but not perfectly. For example, someone who makes a lucky guess on a multiple choice IQ test will get a higher score even though they are not more intelligent than someone who makes an unlucky guess.
Imagine a world where intelligence is entirely genetic. Two identical twins take an IQ test, one makes some lucky guesses, the other is tired, and they end up with a score difference of 5 points. Then some random unrelated people take the test and they get the 5 point difference plus an extra 20 point difference from genuinely having different IQs.
This gets even harder when trying to measure fuzzier constructs like criminality. Suppose someone does a twin study on criminality and their outcome is whether a twin was ever convicted of a felony.
This depends partly on whether the twin is actually the sort of person with criminal tendencies — but also partly on whether a policeman happened to be in the area to catch them, whether their lawyer happened to be good enough to get them off, whether their judge was feeling merciful that day, et cetera.
Imagine a world where criminality is entirely genetic. Identical Twin A becomes a small-time cocaine dealer in a back alley in West Philly, sells to an undercover cop, and ends up in jail. Riemann and Kandler obsessively collect every possible measurement of personality — self-report, other-report, multiple different tests — and average them out to get an unusually accurate and low-noise estimate of the personality of the twins in their study.
So it looks like much of the non-shared environmental variation in traditional studies of personality was just error. Luck of the draw. Bob becomes a junior advertising executive at Coca-Cola, where he designs a new ad targeting young female consumers.
His identical twin Rob becomes a junior advertising executive at Pepsi-Cola, where he designs his own new ad targeting young female consumers.
Both ads are very successful — in fact, exactly equally successful. Now a scientist comes along, does a twin study on them, and finds that they have very different levels of income. But actually, Bob and Rob are completely identical in every way, no incident in their past did anything to separate them, and Bob just ended up working for a crappy CEO.
In this scenario, inherent predisposition to earning money is exactly the same in both twins, they just have different amounts of luck at it.
Instead, it specifies high-level processes which create lower-level processes which create those cells. But this gives the lower-level processes a lot of leeway, meaning that there can be significant biological differences between identical twins.
Consider by analogy The Postmodernism Generator. We can imagine hundreds of different programmers all designing their own postmodernism generators.
Some would be really brilliantly designed and consistently come up with plausible looking essays. But there would also be variation within the results of each generator.
There might be a generator that is mostly terrible but occasionally by coincidence comes up with a really funny essay, or vice versa.Comments. Brother Nathanael November 10, @ pm. Please Help This Site and The Brother Nathanael Foundation PAY for a Nativity Scene to .
The C.D.C. issued the sweeping pre-Thanksgiving alert after 32 people in 11 states were sickened with a virulent form of E.
coli. Investigators have not been able to pinpoint the source. What to do if you find out your loved one is an opioid addict. If you just found out that a loved one is struggling with an opioid addiction, . Nature vs. Nurture. You've all heard the question before.
Let's talk about kids for a moment. I grew up believing that human behavior was 20% nature, 80% nurture. Now that I have two boys (4 and 7. To arrive at the edge of the world's knowledge, seek out the most complex and sophisticated minds, put them in a room together, and have them ask each other the questions they are asking themselves.
According to the documentary short Evolution vs. God, Darwinism is a leap of faith that falls far short of Creationism in explaining the mysteries of our timberdesignmag.com film, which could have presented a fascinating open debate on a crucial subject, quickly devolves into a shallow-minded "gotcha" exercise..
Throughout the course of the film, we're given flashes of rapidly edited interview.