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The ARK defines a program model as promising if it does not satisfy the definition of an evidence-based program model, but meets one or more of the following criteria: Police dispatch protocols ensure that officers who have received CIT training are designated as the officer in charge on the scene if multiple officers respond to a crisis encounter.
Cases may be resolved informally without an arrest or the arrest charge may be dropped or withdrawn if the individual completes treatment.
The co-responder model of CIT pairs police officers with clinical outreach workers who may be civilian employees of the police department or employees of partnering social service agencies. The police officers and clinicians work collaboratively to co-manage crisis encounters and oversee referrals to treatment.
Less research has investigated patient-level outcomes, such as reductions in criminal recidivism or improvements in mental health symptoms. Retrospective studies of police encounters with mentally ill persons, and studies in which officers were given hypothetical vignettes of such encounters, have generally found no differences in the use of force or likelihood of making an arrest between CIT-trained and non-trained officers.
However, post hoc analyses suggest that CIT-trained officers may be less likely to use force when a mentally ill person is acting in an overtly defiant or psychotically agitated manner.
Additionally, CIT-trained officers were more likely than non-trained officers to carry a non-lethal electronic control device e. Police officer perceptions of the impact of crisis interventions team CIT programs.
A comprehensive review of extant research on crisis intervention team CIT programs. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 36 147— Use of force preferences and perceived effectiveness of actions among crisis intervention team CIT police officers and non-CIT officers in an escalating psychiatric crisis involving a subject with schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37 4 Surveys of police chiefs and sheriffs and of police officers about CIT programs. Psychiatric Services, 66 7 Crisis intervention teams and people with mental illness: Exploring factors that influence use of force. The criminal justice outcomes of jail diversion programs for persons with mental illness: A review of the evidence.
The crisis intervention team model of police response to mental health crises: A primer for mental health practitioners.
Best Practices in Mental Health, 8 2 Outcomes of police contacts with persons with mental illness: The impact of CIT.
Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 37 4 A multisite study found significantly better outcomes when CIT officers partnered with a crisis drop-off center that had a no-refusal policy for police referrals Steadman et al. These outcomes were significantly better than for two other CIT programs that paired officers with clinicians in the field, but provided no assurance that treatment would be available after the immediate crisis was resolved.
These findings suggest that police may be more likely to forgo an arrest if they are confident that an individual will receive adequate treatment to prevent further entanglements with the law. Comparing outcomes of major models of police responses to mental health emergencies. Psychiatric Services, 51 5 The programs were created for seriously disordered individuals who would otherwise have a low risk for criminal reoffending if they receive indicated services i.
If a referral for psychiatric treatment is unlikely to stabilize a case and avert future encounters with law enforcement, a more assertive outreach approach with continuing supervision by criminal justice professionals may be indicated.
Studies have found that police officers were more likely to apply CIT strategies when an individual was acting oddly, was psychotically agitated, or had an unusually defiant demeanor Compton et al.
Police may be more willing to use verbal de-escalation techniques in lieu of force when the need level of an individual is observably impaired. Officers are less likely to use CIT techniques for persons who appear to be reasonably calm and lucid, and therefore are unlikely to be suffering from a severe mental health or substance use disorder.
Crisis Intervention Team Core Elements. Improving police response to persons with mental illness.
An integrated approach to de-escalation and minimizing use of force. A guide to implementing police-based diversion programs for people with mental illness. A resource for CIT programs across the nation, at http: Pre-arrest interventions commonly focus on deescalating crises or emotionally charged situations, and determining whether an individual should be taken into custody, released with a citation to appear in court or at another government agency such as a pre-arrest diversion program on a later date, or warned and released without creating a formal record of the encounter.The leading coach and bus industry news source.
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