Basic characteristics[ edit ] The nature of Romanticism may be approached from the primary importance of the free expression of the feelings of the artist.
Terms August Decrees A series of decrees issued by the National Assembly in August that successfully suppressed the Great Fear by releasing all peasants from feudal contracts. Bastille A large armory and state prison in the center of Paris that a mob of sans-culottes sacked on July 14,giving the masses arms for insurrection.
Bourgeoisie The middle and upper classes of French society who, as members of the Third Estate, wanted an end to the principle of privilege that governed French society in the late s. The bourgeoisie represented the moderate voices during the French Revolution and were represented by delegates in both the Estates-General and the National Assembly.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy A document, issued by the National Assembly in Julythat broke ties with the Catholic Church and established a national church system in France with a process for the election of regional bishops. The document angered the pope and church officials and turned many French Catholics against the revolutionaries.
Although the committee led off its tenure with an impressive war effort and economy-salvaging initiatives, things took a turn for the worse when Robespierre began his violent Reign of Terror in late Constitution of The new French constitution that in established a constitutional monarchy, or limited monarchy, with all executive power answerable to a legislative assembly.
Under the new constitution, King Louis XVI could only temporarily veto legislation passed by the assembly.
Declaration of Pillnitz An August 27,warning from Prussia and Austria announcing that they would intervene militarily in France if any harm came to King Louis XVI, who had just been captured trying to escape with his family from Paris.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen A document, issued by the National Assembly on August 26,that granted sovereignty to all French people. The Directory was appointed by the legislative assembly. However, after election results proved unfavorable to elements in the Directory, it orchestrated an overthrow of the assembly and maintained dubious control over France until it was overthrown by Napoleon Bonaparte in Estates-General A medieval representative institution in France that had not met for years before King Louis XVI reconvened it on May 5,to deal with the looming financial crisis.
Girondins The name given to the moderates in the National Convention. The Girondins controlled the legislative assembly untilwhen, with the war going poorly and food shortages hurting French peasants, the Jacobins ousted them from power. Great Fear A period in July and August during which rural peasants revolted against their feudal landlords and wreaked havoc in the French countryside.
Jacobins The radical wing of representatives in the National Convention, named for their secret meeting place in the Jacobin Club, in an abandoned Paris monastery. The Jacobins took control of the convention, and France itself, from to As Robespierre became increasingly concerned with counterrevolutionary threats, he instituted a brutal period of public executions known as the Reign of Terror.
Limited Monarchy Also known as constitutional monarchy, a system of government in which a king or queen reigns as head of state but with power that is limited by real power lying in a legislature and an independent court system.
Monarchy The form of government, common to most European countries at the time of the French Revolution, in which one king or queen, from a designated royal dynasty, holds control over policy and has the final say on all such matters.
As a body, the National Assembly claimed to legitimately represent the French population. The assembly dissolved in so that new elections could take place under the new constitution.
National Convention The body that replaced the Legislative Assembly following a successful election in As one of its first actions, the convention declared the French monarchy abolished on September 21,and on the following day declared France a republic.
Though originally dominated by moderates, the convention became controlled by radical Jacobins in Parlements A set of thirteen provincial judicial boards—one based in Paris and the other twelve in major provincial cities—that constituted the independent judiciary of France.
The parlements held the power of recording royal decrees, meaning that if a parlement refused to record an edict, the edict would never be implemented in that district. Reign of Terror A ten-month period of oppression and execution from late to mid, organized by Maximilien Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety to suppress any potential enemies of the radical Revolution.
The Reign of Terror ended with the fall of Robespierre, who was arrested and executed in July The mob mentality of the sans-culottes constituted the most radical element of the Revolution. Meeting at a nearby tennis court, these members of the Third Estate pledged to remain together until they had drafted and passed a new constitution.
Thermidorian Reaction The post—Reign of Terror period ushered in by the execution of Maximilien Robespierre in July and the reassertion of moderate power over the French Revolution. Third Estate One of the three estates in the Estates-General, consisting of the commoners of France, whether rich merchants or poor peasants.
Despite the fact that it constituted the vast majority of the French population, the Third Estate had just one vote in the Estates-General—the same vote that the much smaller First Estate clergy and Second Estate nobility each had.
Frustrated with its political impotence, the Third Estate broke from the Estates-General on June 17,and declared itself the National Assembly. Tuileries The palace in Paris in which King Louis XVI and his family were placed under house arrest after they were forcibly taken from their court at Versailles.
The point of removing the royal family to Paris was to allow the people to keep a close watch on their actions. Known for its extraordinary splendor, extravagance, and immense size, Versailles was the home of the king, queen, and all members of the royal family, along with high government officials and select nobles.
On October 5,a mob of angry and hungry French women marched on Versailles, bringing the royal family back to Paris to deal with the food shortage.Industrial Revolution, in modern history, the process of change from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing.
This process began in Britain in the 18th century and from there spread to other parts of . British Reactions to the French Revolution on British thinking and, in particular, British Romanticism.
As Professor Cody’s brief overview of the impact of the French Revolution makes clear, the events of and the events immediately Some critics of Coleridge and Wordsworth have characterized their development of Romanticism, with.
The experimental method was a new way of discovering and learning that was the basis of a lot of the observation, experimenting, and concluding of problems in the scientific revolution and even into the present day. In this lesson, we explore the phase of the French Revolution popularly known as the Reign of Terror, a year-long period where thousands of French men and women lost their lives.
The United States, in the middle of a social revolution, led the world in LGBT rights in the late s and early s. Inspired by the civil-rights movement and the women's movement, early gay-rights pioneers had begun, by the s, to build a movement.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from to Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the.