Background Reading What is Stakeholder Analysis? With information on stakeholders, their interests, and their capacity to oppose reform, reform advocates can choose how to best accommodate them, thus assuring policies adopted are politically realistic and sustainable. Although Stakeholder Analysis originated from the business sciences, it has evolved into a field that now incorporates economics, political science, game and decision theory, and environmental sciences. Current models of SA apply a variety of tools on both qualitative and quantitative data to understand stakeholders, their positions, influence with other groups, and their interest in a particular reform.
But during the Vietnam War, in consideration of young people in military service, 29 states lowered the legal drinking age. As a result, there was no uniform drinking age, with some states choosing 18, 19, or 20, and some states also putting restrictions on types of beverages that could be purchased such as beer and wine, or limited the right to on-premise sales only, etc.
As a result of these changes, there was a marked increase in car fatalities where young people and drinking was involved. This patchwork of laws also led to problems at state borders, creating significant risk for teens that would drive to an adjacent state to obtain or consume alcohol.
For instance, Wisconsin allowed liquor sales to 18 year olds, and Illinois did not, and it is not uncommon to hear local adults tell stories, some tragic, of their youth and driving back and forth to Wisconsin to drink.
Funding for highway construction was tied to compliance, providing a strong incentive, but the concern about teen drinking and driving was the most compelling reason for the change. Some restrictions on rights, privileges, and accountability do vary by state or across the nation from ; examples are the age one can rent a car 25age considered an adult in an arrest 17age of consent can marry, have sex—16 with permission, 18 withoutthe age one can run for the state legislature 18 to 21the age one can be held responsible for a contract 21age one can run for US elected positions House of Representatives, 25, Senate 30, President 35and so forth.
Some states, such as Ohio, allow alcohol consumption in establishments by minors when parents are present; most allow parents to serve alcohol to their children in their own homes.
All states have penalties for fake id possession, sale, or use, and most consider this a felony. Even so, many high school and college students report that they have a fake id for purposes of obtaining alcohol.
Proposals to lower the legal drinking age for purchase or service, or for those under 21 in the military have been proposed in Vermont, Missouri, Minnesota, Kentucky, Wisconsin, and South Carolina each proposal is different.
InJohn McCardell, former president of Middlebury College, spoke out about the problems of underage drinking and advocated lower the drinking age in his state and the country.
With the help of the Robertson Foundation, he formed Choose Responsibility ina non-profit group whose mission is to investigate the issue of youth and risky alcohol use, and more specifically, to promote consideration of lowering the drinking age.
McCardell argues that lowering the age will end covert and dangerous drinking. Other Countries There is little uniformity in the legal drinking age across the rest of the world. Some countries have no law regarding the age one can purchase or consume alcohol; others allow use as early as Few other countries have a legal drinking age of US students frequently report no restrictions on obtaining alcohol in Mexico, for instance, even at years of age.
Despite the higher drinking age, the level of automobile crashes and fatalities related to drinking is higher in the US than other countries.
While the larger number of cars available to youth is a factor, another contributing factor is the higher BAC level allowed for drinking in the US vs. Binge drinking, among youth however, has been recorded at higher levels in many other countries than the US. The European Economic Union http: Thus, early access to alcohol, and normalized use of alcohol in families and among youth has not appeared to lower the rate of binge drinking that is popular with youth people today.
Some countries are currently contemplating an increase in the drinking age to address the health issue of risky teen drinking, but there is strong opposition from youth and from the powerful liquor industry to do so.The Logic of Political Survival (The MIT Press) [Bruce Bueno de Mesquita, Alastair Smith, Randolph M.
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What is Stakeholder Analysis? Stakeholder Analysis (SA) is a methodology used to facilitate institutional and policy reform processes by accounting for and often incorporating the needs of those who have a ‘stake’ or an interest in the reforms under consideration.
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